Ing. Salih CAVKIC
Editor in Chief
Paris nor Brussels!
We want to live in peace with all
regardless of their religion, color and origin.
Therefore, we condemn any
kind of terrorism!
Ne više Pariz ni Brisel!
Mi želimo živjeti u miru sa svim našim
bez obzira koje su vjere, boje kože i porijekla.
Zato mi osuđujemo svaku vrstu terorizma!
Prof. dr. Murray Hunter
University Malaysia Perlis
Years to Trade Economic Independence for Political Sovereignty -
Aleš Debeljak +
Defense of Cross-Fertilization: Europe and Its Identity
Contradictions - Aleš Debeljak
DEBELJAK - ABECEDA DJETINJSTVA
- INTERVJU; PROSVJEDI, POEZIJA, DRŽAVA
Rattana Lao holds a doctorate in Comparative and International
Education from Teachers College, Columbia University and is
currently teaching in Bangkok.
Director of Middle-East and Balkan Studies (IFIMES) in Ljubljana,
Rakesh Krishnan Simha
Géométrie variable of a love triangle – India, Russia and the US
Amna Whiston is a London-based writer specialising in moral philosophy. As a
PhD candidate at Reading University, UK, her main research interests
are in ethics, rationality, and moral psychology.
Eirini Patsea is a Guest Editor in Modern Diplomacy, and
specialist in Cultural Diplomacy and Faith-based Mediation.
Can we trust the government to do the right thing, are they really
care about essential things such as environmental conditions and
education in our life?
Univ. prof. Dubravko Lovrenović is one of the leading
European Medievalist specialized in the Balkans, pre-modern and
modern political history.
Postgraduate researcher in International Relations and Diplomacy at
the Geneva-based UMEF University
professor of IT law
and EU law at Banja Luka College,
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Studied in Belgrade (Political Science) and in Moscow
(Plekhanov’s IBS). Currently, a post-doctoral researcher at the Kent
University in Brussels (Intl. Relations). Specialist for the
MENA-Balkans frozen and controlled conflicts.
Dr.Swaleha Sindhi is
Assistant Professor in the Department
of Educational Administration, the Maharaja Sayajirao University of
Baroda, India. Decorated educational practitioner Dr. Sindhi is a
frequent columnist on related topics, too. She is the Vice President
of Indian Ocean Comparative Education Society (IOCES). Contact:
It is an Ankara-based
journalist and notable author.
She is engaged with the leading Turkish dailies and weeklies for
nearly three decades as a columnist, intervieweer and editor.
Her words are prolifically published and quoted in Turkish,
French an English.
By İLNUR ÇEVIK
Modified from the original: They killed 1
Saddam and created 1,000 others (Daily Sabah)
Aine O'Mahony has a bachelor in Law and Political Science at
the Catholic Institute of Paris and is currently a master's student
of Leiden University in the International Studies programme.Contact:
Elodie Pichon has a
bachelor in Law and Political Science at the Catholic Institute of
Paris and is currently doing a MA in Geopolitics, territory and
Security at King's College London. Contact :
a MA candidate of the George
Washington University, Elliott School of International Affairs. Her
research focus is on cross-Pacific security and Asian studies,
particularly on the Sino-U.S. relations and on the foreign policy
and politics of these two.
Born in Chile and raised in Rome, Alessandro
Cipri has just finished his postgraduate studies at the department
of War Studies of King's College London, graduating with distinction
from the Master's Degree in "Intelligence and International
Security". Having served in the Italian Army's "Alpini" mountain
troops, he has a keen interest in national security, military
strategy, insurgency theory, and terrorism studies. His Master's
dissertation was on the impact of drug trafficking on the evolution
of the Colombian FARC.
Ms. Lingbo ZHAO
is a candidate of the Hong Kong Baptist
University, Department of Government and International Studies. Her
research interest includes Sino-world, Asia and cross-Pacific.
Hannes Grassegger and Mikael Krogerus are investigative
journalists attached to the Swiss-based Das Magazin specialized
Hannes Grassegger and Mikael Krogerus are investigative
journalists attached to the Swiss-based Das Magazin
Ms. Elodie Pichon, Research Fellow of the IFIMES Institute, DeSSA
Department. This native Parisian is a Master in Geopolitics,
Territory and Security from the King’s College, London, UK.
Ambassador Muhamed Sacirbey currently lectures on Digital-Diplomacy. "Mo"
has benefited from a diverse career in investment banking & diplomacy, but
his passion has been the new avenues of communication. He was Bosnia &
Herzegovina's first Ambassador to the United Nations, Agent to the
International Court of Justice, Foreign Minister & Signatory of the Rome
Statute establishing the International Criminal Court. He also played
American football opting for a scholarship to Tulane University in New
Orleans after being admitted to Harvard, oh well!!
Dutch - Nederlands
French - Français
German - Deutsch
Balkan Transitional Justice
Serbia Delivered Srebrenica Refugees
to Mladic: Report
Filip Rudic - BIRN-Belgrade
The Humanitarian Law Centre NGO said it will file criminal complaints
against Serbian officials involved in handing over Bosniak refugees from
Srebrenica who fled to Serbia to Ratko Mladic’s forces.
A Bosniak woman at a funeral ceremony at the Srebrenica memorial on July 11.
Photo: Beta/AP/Amel Emric.
The Belgrade-based Humanitarian Law Centre said in a report launched on
Thursday that it has identified 30 Bosniak refugees who crossed the border
seeking shelter in Yugoslavia after the July 1995 genocide in Srebrenica,
but were handed over to Bosnian Serb forces, who killed at least 15 of them.
Nine of the Bosniaks are still listed as missing and six survived.
At the launch of the Humanitarian Law Centre report in Belgrade, one of the
survivors, Muhamed Avdic, recalled how he lost his father, Azem, who remains
listed as a missing person.
“My mother, sister and I parted with father on March 30, 1993, when [Bosnian
Serb commander Ratko] Mladic’s forces were around Srebrenica,” said Avdic,
who was a teenager at the time.
His father stayed behind while the rest of the family took a UN refugee
agency humanitarian aid truck to the nearby town of Tuzla. Their only
communication with Azem was through letters sent via the Red Cross.
“When Srebrenica was declared a safe zone, we were happy and waiting for
father to return. In August 1995 we received information that he had been
captured,” Avdic said.
The HLC had found official records showing that Azem was caught on July 31,
1995, 20 days after the fall of Srebrenica, by police in the Serbian town of
They handed him over to the border police, who in turn gave him to the
Bratunac Brigade of the Bosnian Serb Army; he was never seen since.
After Srebrenica was captured on July 11, 1995, Serb forces killed some
8,000 Bosniaks, which the international courts have qualified as an act of
After the mass murders, the Bosnian Serb Army pursued the Bosniaks who had
escaped. The pursuit, capture, and murders continued for weeks after the
fall of Srebrenica, according to the Humanitarian Law Centre.
“Every man who was caught on Serbian territory was handed over to the
Bosnian Serb Army, including those who, according to police records,
resorted to self-harm to prevent [themselves] from being returned,” said
Milica Kostic from the Humanitarian Law Centre.
According to the report, no domestic or international court has ever
prosecuted Serbian officials for the crimes.
One of the few survivors, Abdurahman Malkic, said he left Srebrenica as the
town was being captured in July 1995.
“I took the road to salvation, towards [Bosniak-controlled territory in]
Tuzla, there were 15,000 of us in a ten-kilometre column,” Malkic said.
After constant attacks on the refugee column, he and his brother swam over
the river Drina and crossed into Serbia.
According to records obtained by the HLC, they were captured together with
other men on July 23.
After being sent back to Bosnia, six of them, including Malkic, were
transfered to the Batkovic prisoner camp near Bijeljina. They were the only
ones who survived the deportations.
“It was a routine operation. Men were captured by the Serbian police, then
turned over to the border police in Bajina Basta or Ljubovija. There they
were interrogated, tortured, and turned over to the border police of
[Bosnian Serb entity] Republika Srpska, which in turn handed them over to
the Bosnian Serb Army,” Kostic said.
She added that Serbia knew that the men were refugees from Srebrenica, and
that they were in danger from the Bosnian Serb police and military.
“Most importantly, everybody knew that the men from Srebrenica were
systematically murdered by the thousands,” she said.
At the presentation of the report, Muhamed Avdic showed a picture of his
father, a school teacher, surrounded by the Bosniak and Serb children that
“Since we are facing denial of genocide and claims that the numbers [of
Srebrenica victims] are made up, here is the proof my father lived,” Avdic
“I hope that the state authorities who wish to defend Serbia’s honour will
do something and punish the culprits,” he added.
July 19, 2017
The Truth and Reconciliation stuggle on the
We live in a post-genocidal society, divided into
ethnic-religious ghetto by means of war. In such broken society are
continually inserted seductive and controversial concepts that serve
the goals that are not realized by means of war. The terms such as
federalism, unitarism and separatism come mainly as political games
of political life actors in our country, but regarding the
separatism of the entities RS, the Greater Serbian policy is
absolutely focused on this goal. The shaping of political reality
and the main ideas in it is a work of the ideology – par
excellence, which then means that these terms are mostly
ideologically determined and conceived in the minds of their
Serbian fascism never
stops, it is becoming more and more dangerous every day
remember that M. Kasapović (Zagreb) in 2005 imposed and installed
the term of consociation
as territorial separation of the people in Bosnia and as the only
possible model for the organization of the political system in
Bosnia, followed by an orchestrated story of federalization and
electoral units. The vague concept about the "impossible state" by
N. Kecmanović (Banjaluka) is added to this in 2007 and till today,
these two, assembled Serbian-Croatian projects of the dissolution of
Bosnia stifled us and taken to a blind track of history. Kasapović
has already come to
of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
names, Kasapović and Kecmanović, are witnesses to the great
problem that has dampened our present social reality! We did not
forget that on the ground of Bosnia, "pure ethnic territories" were
On the objection that
separatism must be halted, separatist forces respond that separatism
is a reaction to unitarism and the non-recognition of entity "RS" or
the necessity of federalization because of the vulnerability
of Croats by
Bosniaks. Thus, the syntagm of "unitarist politics" is a good excuse
to continue the policy of division, ghettoization, hatred, great
Serbian policy and similar enterprises.
political system with imposed Constitution in Anex IV has brought
peace to Bosnia, but, it should be emphasized, left the hope of
anti-Bosnian forces to continue what they did not end in the war.
This was immediately understood by the Greater Serbian policy and
the entity RS was called the "Serbian state", "war booty" or "the
rest of the remnants of the Serbian ethnic territory" west of the
Drina River. The name of the entity itself allows this in
perspective! Many people are already "trained" to speak "Serbian
entity" regardless of the fact that it was made by genocide against
falsely identified with majorization in the explanations of
separatist policies that, in fact, do not want the state of Bosnia
or want only the formally present state institutions that are
subordinate to the entity. The unitary system of government means
that there is a state power that is accomplished throughout the
territory of the state. Relating to this idea, Bosnia is a highly
decentralized state divided into entities and cantons, which
considerably slows down its functioning. The key matter is that
separatism and federalism as parts of the political ideology of
anti-Bosnianism do not want strong state of Bosnia. In such divided
state, there we cannot talk about unitarism.
expansionist nationalism of Serbs and Croats sees its goal in the
assimilation of the Bosnian territory, then the "territorial
authority" of ethnics means suppressing everything different from
our "territory" and disregarding that in “our territory "state power
or some national (state) institution has any influence. From here to
dissolution, it is just a step. This is the way that tribal games go
to the extreme. Serbian and Croatian national projects are seeking a
"Bosniak policy" that would agree to implementation of Bosnian
state's dissolution in this way and end with its political and
A brave Bosnian policy
should offer the concept of
state area and constantly insist on it regardless of all
Serbian-Croatian agreements against Bosnia.
Bosnia has five
historical regions that derive their meaningful existence from
medieval times and that should not be ridden of the mind. In
addition, the Bosnian ethatist political philosophy must be
reaffirmed, therefore, a new development of awareness of the
importance of the state. By this, it should be ended the Bosniak
jeremiad in the last twenty years and defeated the anti-politics.
The ideologized vocabulary of anti-Bosnian
We must not agree to accept the ideologized vocabulary of
anti-Bosnian politics at all. Unfortunately, we still do not have a
sufficiently strong Bosnian policy that could deal with numerous
subversives, simulacrums, deceptions and abuses of the system
institutions, and we are all troubled by the failure of the rule of
law. Parts of the law apply only to powerless or politically
unbounded. It seems that the system of law in this country is the
main source of corruption and manipulation of citizens, such a
monstrous system that we have not even imagined. Organized groups
have appropriated "right" of rights institutions and it appears as
"party" and "ethnic" property, plus family clans, and the state is
catastrophically damaged and turned into a "super-market" for
robbery. The law system is subordinate to political groups that
implement their constructions of social life. Weak state
institutions open the space to all degenerative phenomena that
undermine political stability. The state is vulnerable,
institutionally deprived and does not breathe full of lungs. It
would be good if the unitary system of government worked and
organized the political life in the state through the devolution. It
would be much more order, responsibility and better life. There
would be no anarchy, hunting in the fog, ethnophulism in the
education system, anachronistic ideologies, mythical consciousness,
Chetniks and Ustasha, denying of genocide, denying the right to
Bosnian language for children in schools ... In post genocidal
society, a strong and responsible state is needed in order to
overcome war trauma and reached legal satisfaction. What we have now
is a knock-together form of war achievements and fulfilled wishes of
the Milosević’s regime.
The bureaucrats from the so-called
We should not be naive and believe to bureaucrats from the so-called
International community, to people like for example, B. B.
Ghali, J. Akashi, J. Mayor, M. Lajčak or C. Bildt and many others,
known and unknown. They consider Bosnia as a regular working task
and they did not carry out anything to improve life in Bosnia. Let
remember José Cutilliero, Lord Carrington, David Owen, Philippe
Morillon and dozens of others who have done everything to carry out
an anti-Bosnian idea in Bosnia and led us to the madness of the
division of the country towards the ethnic-religious lines of war
conquest. They were "just mediators" – that sounds innocently. They
came here as maharaja with their colonial narrations. Today's
generations must not forget these people and must save a real memory
about them. It is important, for example, to leave a recorded memory
of F. Mitterrand and similar figures of modern cynicism that
convinced us that we could walk across the city under the siege of
Serbian howitzers and snipers beside the burnt City Hall or Markale.
They turned our disaster into a "humanitarian issue" and shamefully
closed their eyes against the genocide against Bosniaks all over the
Bosnia. In addition, Bosnia is settled at the heart of the former
South Slavic area and it is "ideal" as a focal point in which
Western, European, Anglo-Saxon, Germanic, civilized mediators
"experts" can be involved for the division of territories leaving
the peoples in conflicts. When “bureaucrats” stop working this in
the Balkans, it is absolutely certain that peace will be here – to
avoid saying eternal peace, because we have never started wars.
Let's look back to the 20th century - everything was transparent.
Egoistic bureaucrats do not need civil Bosnia or peace among South
Slavic "tribes", because what would they do then and how they deal
with their problems. European bureaucrats have been watching
aggression on Bosnia for four years and wrote letters to Milošević.
They did not provide protection and defence of an independent state
with the UN forces. In today's constellation, they worry about the
Bosnian and South Slavic "primitives" who do not know what "civil
society" is and play the role of a civilizing factor.
The political matrix of
ethnic-religious representation of people
It would be worth to express a sceptical attitude towards the "civil
political option" syntagm, because it does not have clear semantic
structure, as well as a "nationalist policy". Until we begin to name
precisely the phenomena around us, we will not know what is
happening to us! Since the 1990s in Bosnia the political matrix
of ethnic-religious representation of people has been imposed, so
that they have not appeared as individuals, citizens, free citizens,
but only and exclusively as members of the team/collective, Serbs,
Croats, Bosniaks and Others.
In that wretched matrix, people of Bosnia are not autonomous and
free individuals. They have to think as the "team/collective says"
or the priest on behalf of the team/collective (tribe, people,
nation, religion) and in such way their individuality is reduced of
them, and then they are only "cannon flesh" of some great "Načertanija"
(1844) and pathological conditions of hegemonic politics. Such a
collectivist spirit is controlled by religious institutions and
ruling political oligarchs. Here, the religion is the basis of the
nation - and it tells us where we are! It is an illusion to present
the policy throughout the conceptual pair of "nationalist" and
"civil" politics when we know that this is only the seductive
surface of the project of tribal division of the people of the South
Slavic area and the imposition of a matrix to Bosnia that opposes
against its historical political philosophy.
Our heroic peoples, who have neglected their production of knowledge
and general culture, managed by people with suspicious projects,
they will be slaves and serfs in the upcoming establishment of the
world order as a system of hegemony of several powers. The pair of
terms "civil" and "nationalist" does not correspond to the essential
meaning of the historical process in which we are overtaken by a
sub-national political culture, a feudalized landscape in which
neither citizens nor nationalists “can” appear.
We have not yet learned to participate freely in a democratic
culture as citizens with their opinions and interests. We still need
tribal chiefs and priests who do not know anything about the Bosnian
political future! We need to ask questions that help us to focus
primarily. For example, first of all - how did it happen that we are
the only ones in today's Europe who has a "tribal political system"
or a "state of tribes", such a constitutional arrangement imposed by
Annex IV? Who set us this up as the Constitution of the State?
Why all European diplomats are silent on this issue and say that we
should "agree" when they, as the International Community, have
fulfilled the wishes of the aggressors and nationalist forces in the
Balkans and against Bosnia? This cynical European bureaucracy, above
all, regardless of European ideals, is a self-sufficient, static and
enlarging political group that accumulates great power in its hands.
It pretends as awkward in front of the Balkan fascists, the Nazis,
the fundamentalists, because such characters serve it as an example
of the "primitive Balkans" and "wild Slavic tribes" who are
slaughtered each other without mercy. This colonial background and
the orientalistic image about us disable a realistic approach to
solving problems in this area.
There are also quite low and hypocritical moves of Croatian
"European" policy that plays its petty-bourgeois super-ordination to
this area and shows itself to others as an "heir of European values"
while supporting the Hague convicts with Tompson's songs and
ideology. This Croatian unilateralism has led to the incomparable
exodus of Bosnian Croats from their homeland - Bosnia and has torn
them away from their Bosnian state. The second guidance that helps
us to orient ourselves is focused on understanding the distinction
between national and ethnic, civil and ethnicity. First of all, it should be reminded that in the area
of South East Europe, where the South Slavic nations were located,
the state structure of these nations failed because they were mostly
obsessed with their own mythical, religious and ethnic constructions
or fabrications that served them to represent themselves as a nation
superior to others. In Bosnia, this has been happening during the
whole 20th century in big noises of the Serbian and Croatian
Thus, the national question was shaped at a very primitive level as
a question of creating an ethnic-religious state from which all who
are not "ours" by religion and nationality will be excluded. This
incompetence for the difference led the national question under the
control of religious institutions of Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks. In
one-track politics, the nuances of the fascist-shape relation to the
different are noticed, as R. Konstantinović wrote about it, so
knowledgeable and anticipatory, as well as Miodrag Popović. So, it
could be said that the South Slavic peoples, as well as the peoples
of Bosnia, have not yet developed and tested a political culture
that surpasses the "tribal image of the world" and prefers
man as the greatest value of the social life of people.
We need to teach people that
nationally are not a
tribal, ethnic, folk, regional or ethnic-religious definition of a
person, but it is meant that a free citizen belongs to a
state-nation that assures him all human rights as to its citizen.
Nationality is thus a civil definition, a legal-political concept of
people's life who does not exclude their cultural perceptions
of themselves. So, it is time to learn to distinguish the political-legal level of human life in the community from the
cultural-historical dimension through which a certain national
identity is recognized as specific among others. The Bosnian Serbs
were captured in the mythologist of the 19th century about the
"great Serbian state" in which all Serbs will live and - only Serbs.
In front of them there is a great historical task to overcome their
own misconceptions, self-denial and historical blind alley.
A similar process of liberation from the "Ottoman image of the
world" has already begun by the Bosniaks and they are carrying it
out. In the end, it should be emphasized that in our country the civil has not yet matured in citizenship awareness, but it
entails historicist narratives of Tito-statehood, fraternity and
unity, communism and a one-party world, the monolithic Left,
existence without identity, misunderstanding of anti-Fascism,
bipolar diversity of the world, unable to anticipate the new Bosnian
idea of life, and so on. In fact, the civil has never come
to life in this region as a political culture of respecting a man,
an individual, a free citizen of the Bosnian nation. We still do not
know what it means to be a citizen, free and conscious again in our
We have not considered this in the past thirty years under the siege
of collective metaphysics of ethnic-religious groups. In today's
monstrous political systems, this seems to be utopian, unreal and
unachievable before the dictatorship of party oligarchies, leaders
and their assistants. In that danger is growing the rescue-thing -
Heidegger would remind to Hoelderlin.
Senadin Lavić is a professor at the
Department of the Sociology of Political Sciences Faculty Sarajevo,
at University of Sarajevo, in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Prolific author of numerous books and seminal works, prof. Lavić is
the Chairman of the Bosnian Cultural Union 'Preporod'.
July 18, 2017
Bosnian Reporter Flees After Condemning Mladic Rally
BIRN | Banja Luka
Columnist Dragan Bursac has fled Banja Luka after receiving death threats from supporters of the
former Bosnian Serb military commander Ratko Mladic.
Dragan Bursac. Photo: Curtesy of Bursac
Journalist Dragan Bursac - who received death
threats after criticizing a planned rally in Banja
Luka in support of Ratko Mladic - told BIRN that he
had been forced to go into hiding for some time.
He had reported the death threats he has received to
the police, he added.
Burcac received the highly aggressive threats after
publishing a column expressing deep revulsion at a
planned demonstration in support of the former
Bosnian Serb commander under the slogan “Support for
General Ratko Mladic - Stop the Lies about
It was scheduled to be held on July 11 - on the same
day as the annual commemoration of the 1995 massacre
of Bosniaks in Srebrenica by Bosnian Serb forces
under Mladic’s control.
Courts have deemed the massacre of some 8,000
Bosniaks [Muslims] a genocidal act.
The Interior Ministry of Republika Srpska, the Serb-dominated entity in Bosnia, has since delayed
the rally, citing security issues.
Outraged at the planned rally, Bursac asked whether
people were willing to stand by and watch as “the
Srebrenica genocide is celebrated in Banja Luka?”.
The organizers of the rally were a right-wing
Serbian nationalist movement called the “Zavetnici”,
After that, Bursac received death threats that
forced him to flee Banja Luka.
“I received explicit threats via social networks,
detailing what they would do to me and my family,”
Bursac told BIRN.
In calling off the rally, the interior ministry on
Monday said that it would be unable to patrol the
gathering of an expected 1,000 participants because
most of its police would be away, safeguarding the
commemorative events in Srebrenica itself.
Bursac said it was very problematic that the rally
had not been banned completely but only rescheduled.
“Instead of banning the rally, they have delayed it.
They are saying: ‘OK, fascism is not allowed on July
11, but it will be allowed at a later date,’” he
Burcas said that a silent majority in Banja Luka was
just watching as extremists turned the city into a
hotbed for “Chetniks” – a code word for Serbian
“What do you call a citizen of Banja Luka who will
watch, shrugging and mute, as this lunacy takes
place in the centre of the city? There is a word for
that - an accomplice!” Bursac wrote in his article.
Bursac concluded that his own forced flight was yet
another example of the worsening plight of
journalists in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
“If you are reporting on culture, concerts,
festivals ... you are wonderful, but if you peek
into the pockets of politicians and tycoons, and
refuse to uphold fascism, then you receive death
threats,” he said.
Over 70 more victims of the July 1995 genocide were
due to be buried at the annual ceremony at the
Srebrenica memorial site on July 11.
Mladic is currently on trial in The Hague for
genocide and other crimes in Bosnia and Herzegovina,
with the first-instance verdict expected in
July 14, 2017
REGIONAL SECURITY ARCHITECTURES:
COMPARING ASIA AND EUROPE
Insights from Anis Bajrektarevic
Trans-Pacific View author Mercy Kuo regularly engages subject-matter experts,
policy practitioners, and strategic thinkers across the globe
for their diverse insights into U.S. Asia policy. This
conversation with Dr. Anis Bajrektarevic – chairperson and
professor in international law and global political studies,
Vienna, Austria and editor of the New York-based scientific
journal Geopolitics, History, and International Relations –
is the 98th in “The Trans-Pacific View Insight Series.”
Compare and contract regional security architectures in Asia
all other major theaters have had pan-continental settings in
place already for many decades, such as the Organization of
American States – OAS (American continent); African Union – AU
(Africa); Council of Europe and Organization for Security and
Cooperation in Europe – OSCE (Europe), Asia is rather different.
What becomes apparent, at first glance, is the absence of any
pan-Asian security/ multilateral structure. Prevailing security
structures are bilateral and mostly asymmetric. They range from
the clearly defined and enduring non-aggression security
treaties, through less formal arrangements, up to the Ad hoc
cooperation accords on specific issues.
The presence of the multilateral regional settings is limited to
a very few spots in the largest continent, and even then, they
are rarely mandated with security issues in their declared scope
Another striking feature is that most of the existing bilateral
structures have an Asian state on one side, and an either
peripheral or external protégé country on the other side which
makes them nearly, per definition, asymmetric. The examples are
numerous: the US–Japan, US– S. Korea, US–Singapore,
Russia–India, Australia–East Timor, Russia–North Korea, Japan
–Malaysia, China–Pakistan, US–Pakistan, China–Cambodia, US–Saudi
Arabia, Russia –Iran, China–Burma, India–Maldives, Iran–Syria,
N. Korea–Pakistan, etc.
With Brexit in the UK and the “America First” foreign policy of
the US, please give us your take on the future of NATO.
West is apparently in a serious decline. The UK has been sliding
down for 100 years, absorbing it by a skilful set of planetary
contrasts. The US has been melting ever since the end of WWII.
In 1945, Americans had 54% of global manufacturing output, today
it is hardly a 1/3 of it.
NATO is a relict of Cold War instrumentarium. Currently,
confrontational nostalgia is what keeps it afloat.
Atlantistic world is overcommitted and overstretched. London and
Washington understand that NATO increasingly becomes part of a
problem not a solution, for their own future. Europe goes along
with it. Simply, the Old Continent is not a wealthy club anymore. It is a
theater with a memory of its wealthy past. The EU has to learn
how to deescalate and compromise. This is in its best interest,
for the sake of its only viable future.
Is an Asian version of NATO plausible?
Why does the
world’s largest continent must consider creation of a
comprehensive pan-Asian institution? Not a military pact a’la
NATO (since NATO is only an instrument of American military
presence in Europe) but a true multi-vector and multilateral
instrument. Prevailing security structures in Asia are bilateral
and mostly asymmetric, while Europe enjoys multilateral,
balanced and symmetric setups (the American and African
forthcoming book No Asian century, I go as far as to
claim that irrespective of the impressive economic growth, no
Asian century will emerge without creation of such an
institution. Asia today is a huge running water without clear
river banks - a rising economic
success, social volcano and political hazard.
Identify three ongoing geopolitical risks that Asia and Europe
of the 19th and a good part of 20th
century, a central question of Europe and Euro-Atlantic was how
many ‘Germanys’ Europe can digest – one big, über-performing
and omnipresent, or several Germanophone states in a dynamic
equilibrium with itself and the rest. This and the so-called the
grand accommodation – Germany with Russia or France with Russia
– remains a central security dilemma for many decades to come.
other flank of the world, the entire Asian architecture was
based on an assumption of a weak center; fragmented, backword
and soft mainland China. What we are witnessing now is awaking
of China – reminiscence of an imperial Germany in the heart of
What common linkages underpin U.S. transatlantic and
transpacific relations, and how should the U.S. administration
capitalize on them?
grab for fossil fuels or its military competition for naval
control is not a challenge but rather a boost for the US
Asia-Pacific –even an overall posture. Calibrating the
contraction of its overseas projection and commitments –
managing the decline of an empire – the US does not fail to note
that nowadays half of the world’s merchant tonnage passes though
the South China Sea. Therefore, the US will exploit any regional
territorial dispute and other frictions to its own security
benefit, including the costs sharing of its military presence
with the local partners, as to maintain its pivotal position on
the maritime edge of Asia that arches from the Persian Gulf to
the Indian Ocean, Malacca, the South and East China Sea up to
the northwest–central Pacific.
challenge is always to optimize the (moral, political and
financial) costs in meeting national strategic objectives. In
this case, it would be a resolute Beijing’s turn towards green
technology, coupled with the firm buildup of Asian
multilateralism. Without a grand rapprochement to the champions
of multilateralism in Asia, which are Indonesia, India and
Japan, there is no environment for China to seriously evolve and
emerge as a formidable, lasting and trusted global leader.
Consequently, what China needs in Asia is not a naval race of
1908, but the Helsinki process of 1975. In return, what Asia
needs from China and Japan is the ‘ASEAN-ization’, not the
‘Pakistanization’ of its continent.
28 JUN 17
About the author:
Anis H. Bajrektarevic
Vienna, 01 MAY 2017
chairperson and professor in international law and global
political studies, Vienna, Austria. He is Editor of the New
York-based scientific journal GHIR (Geopolitics, History, Intl
Relations). Professors authors four books: FB – Geopolitics
of Technology (Addleton Academic Publishers, NY); Geopolitics –
Europe 100 years later (DB, Europe), Geopolitics – Energy – Technology (Germany, LAP).
and Africa – Security structures (Nova, NY) is his latest,
just released book. His new book is No Asian century.
July 1, 2017
“We win, they lose” –
Wonderful world of Binary categorisations
(Refeudalisation of Europe – III Part)
Anis H. Bajrektarevic
The new Cold War knocks on our doors, suddenly.
Why so? How did it previously end?
The end of the Cold War came abruptly, overnight. Many in the West dreamt about it, but nobody really saw it coming.
The Warsaw Pact, Red Army in DDR, Berlin Wall, DDR itself, Soviet
Union – one after the other, vanished rapidly, unexpectedly. There
was no ceasefire, no peace conference, no formal treaty and
guaranties, no expression of interests and settlement. Only the
gazing face expression of that time Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard
Shevardnadze who circles around and unconvincingly repeats: “we now
better understand each other”.
On contrary, Bush (the 41st
US President) calmly diagnosed: “We win, they lose!” His
administration immediately declared that the policies, including all
military capabilities, will remain unchanged but with a different
pretexts – to respond to the ‘technological sophistication of the
III world powers’ and to a ‘radical nationalism’ (meaning; any
indigenous emancipation). The so-called normative revolution from
Atlantic followed shortly, in which the extensive (assertive) rights
were self-prescribed to that theater. Thus, the might-makes-right
interventions were justified through the new (de facto
imperial) doctrines: humanitarian intervention, R2P (incl.
Kouchner-Lévy bombing for a noble cause), doctrine of
preemption, uninhabited access to or beyond grand area, as
well as the so-called Afroasia forward deployment, as a sort
of the enlarged Brezhnev and Monroe doctrines combined both
Simultaneously, that time Washington darling
Fukuyama published his famous article
End of History?
and the book which came soon
after. To underline how sure he was about this claim he even dropped
the question mark into the title of the book.
Was this sudden meltdown of
the Soviet colossus and the day after intrinsic or by design?
Brutality respected ?
Generous support, lavish and
lasting funds that Atlantic-Central Europe extensively enjoyed in a
form of Marshall Aid has never reached the principal victim of WWII
– Eastern Europe. Despite being set on a weak ethical grounds, it
was due to ideological constrains in the post-WWII period. Total
WWII devastation of the East and their demographic loss of 36
million people (versus only 1,2 million of the West), was of no
Moreover, only 8 years after
the end of WWII, West brokered the so-called London Agreement on
German External Debts (also known as the London Debt Agreement or Londoner Schuldenabkommen). By the letter of this accord over
60% of German reparations for the colossal atrocities committed in
both WW were forgiven (or generously reprogramed) by their former
European victims, including – quite unwillingly – several Eastern
European states. The contemporary world wonder and the economic
wunderkind, Germany that dragged world into the two devastating
world wars, is in fact a serial defaulter which received debt relief
like no one else on the globe – four times in the 20th
century (1924, 1929, 1932 and 1953).
Despite all the subsidies
given to the West, East recovered remarkable fast. By 1950s and
1960s, many influential western economists seriously considered
communism as better suited for economic advancements, along with a
Soviet planned economy as the superior socio-economic model and
winsome ideological matrix.
Indeed, impressive Soviet
results were a living example to it; Backward, semi-feudal, rural
country in 1920s, has won the WWII and in parallel it evolved into a
highly industrialized and urbanized superpower – all that in just 30
year-time. Spain needed two centuries (and never completed), Holland
130 years, the UK 110, Germany 90, Japan 70 years to revolve from a
backword agricultural cultivator into an industrial giant. Moscow
achieved that in only 30-35 years, all alone. Hence, by mid 1950s –
besides becoming a nuclear power – the Soviet Union grew up into a
pioneer and pivot in deep space exploration, moving the final
frontier of mankind deep into the outer space. Sending woman to
space while many in the West still struggled with elementary gender
equality was an ethical and technological blaster. Morality of
communism narrative as well as its socio-economic advancements
If all the above so, why did
than the Soviet Union collapse? Was it really a bankruptcy caused by
the Afghan intervention and costly Space program (orbital station
Mir)? And finally, if the US collapsed earlier, with the so-called
Nixon shock, why did America became stronger afterwards, while after
the Gorbachev-era bankruptcy of the SU, Russian historical empire
has melted away so rapidly?
There are many views on it.
Still, there is nothing conclusive yet - neither popular no
scientific consensus is here.
Some years ago, I’ve had an
honour to teach at the famous Plekhanov University of Economics of
Moscow. It was a block-week with the students of the Plekhanov’s
elite program IBS. 12 days in Moscow proved to be an excellent
opportunity to ask these questions some of the most relevant economy
authorities among academia colleagues.
The line of answers was quite
different to anything I’ve usually heard or read in the West.
Muscovites claimed that right after Nixon shock the Soviet
Politbureau (top Communist party executive) and Gosplan (the
Soviet Central Planning Economic Body – overseeing the entire
economic performance of the SU and de facto its satellites)
have sit jointly in an extensive closed session, as to debate two
1. Could we prevent chaos and global instability by
filling the gap after the collapse of the United States (and it
eventual partition on 4 to 6 entities), by putting the allied
countries – previously under the US sphere of influence – under
our effective control;
2. Could we viably deter Chinese economic (and
overall Asia’s socio-demographic and politico-military)
advancement alone, without a help of the US and its western
After much debating, answer
to both questions was unanimously NO.
Consequently, the logical
conclusion was: The Soviets need to save the US as to preserve
balance of power. Without equilibrium in the world affairs, there is
no peace, stability and security on a long run – a clear
Indeed, right upon the Nixon
shock, an era of détente has started, which led to the Helsinki
process and its Decalogue (that remains the largest and most
comprehensive security treaty ever brokered on our planet). The US
was left to re-approach China. Soon after, it recognised the Beijing
China and closed the Vietnam chapter. Simultaneously, it (re-)gain a
strategic balance elsewhere, like in Latina America and (horn of and
western) Africa, with a brief superpowers’ face-off in the Middle
East (Yom Kippur War) which – though bloody and intensive – did not
damage the earlier set balances.
Why, then, instability
in today’s world?
Apparently, Americans did not
really consider these two questions when it was their turn.
Gorbachev altruism was ridiculed and misused. As a consequence, the
edges of the former Soviet zone – from Algeria to Korea and from
Finland to the Balkans – are enveloped into instabilities. On top of
it, Chinese powerhouse is unstoppable: Neither of the Western powers
alone nor a combination of them is able to match Sino-giant
economically. Asia, although largest continent, is extremely
bilateral. It fragile security structures were anyway built on a
soft centre precondition.
* * * *
Bear of permafrost
worried about planetary balance and was finally betrayed, while a fish of warm seas unleashed its (corporate) greed and turned the
world into what it is today: a dangerous place full of widening
asymmetries and unbalances. Climate, health, income, access to food
and water, safety and security – each regionally and globally
disturbed. Exaggerated statement?
For the sake of empirical
test, let us apply the method of sustainability on this short story
of geopolitics of the second part of XX century. As per tentative
definition, Sustainable Development is any development which aims at
the so-called 3Ms: the maximum good for maximum species, over
maximum time-space span. (The beauty of the 3M principle is that it
makes SD matrix very easily quantifiable.)
How did our superpowers
behave? Was our 3M better off before or after 1991?
The UN High Commissioner for
Refugees Filippo Grandi (in his just released Global Trends Report)
notifies unprecedented asymmetries of today’s world: “Every 113th
person on this planet is the displaced. Of the 65.6 million people
forcibly displaced globally, 10.3 million became displaced in 2016…
This equates to one person becoming displaced every 3 seconds – less
than the time it takes to read this sentence.”
“You are either with us or
against us” is a famous binary platform of Bush (the 43rd
US President). Indeed, our planetary choice is binary but a bit
End of history in re-feudalisation
or a dialectic enhancement of civilisation. Cosmos (of order) or
chaos (of predatory asymmetries) – simple choice.
Anis H. Bajrektarevic
Vienna, 22 JUN 2017
Author is chairperson and
professor in international law and global political studies, Vienna,
Austria. He authors four books: FB – Geopolitics of
Technology (Addleton Academic Publishers, NY); Geopolitics –
Europe 100 years later (DB,
Europe), Geopolitics – Energy – Technology (Germany, LAP).
Europe and Africa – Security structures
(Nova, NY) is his latest, just released book.
June 20, 2017
für Weltfrieden – UPF Austria - Infoservice,
NGO in Special Consultative Status with the Economic and
Social Council of
the United Nations
Partner NGO to the UN Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform
The Universal Peace
Federation Austria (UPF) in cooperation with the Association of
Bosnian Academics in Austria (GBAA)
and the International Institute
and Balkan Studies (IFIMES)
is inviting you to a special lecture on the topic
Sarajevo, Jerusalem of Europe
The Bosnian experience of Islam – Building bridges between the Orient and Europe
16th 2017, 18:00 (6:00 pm)
28, 1070 Vienna
Mirnes ef. Kovac
Lecturer at the eldest
Islamic theological school in Europe, Faculty for Islamic
Studies of Sarajevo.
Graduate of the same faculty, and MA in International
Relations from the Sussex
University in the UK,
he is editor of PREPOROD
(Official Journal of the Islamic
Community of Bosnia).
Honourable ef. Kovac is theologian, journalist and
from Sarajevo – author of hundreds
of texts, essays and
Editor and author of numerous books.
His latest book is "The Siege
of Islam". He is a regular columnist and commentator
on the Middle East and
Balkan issues for prestigious media houses.
For further Information
please contact: Peter Haider 0650 2588846
IFIMES Permanent Representation to Austria and Vienna-based IOs
Executive Assistant to HoM
Anis H. Bajrektarevic, Head of Mission
Cell: +43 (0) 676 739 71 75
June 20, 2017
Memorandum of Understanding between the
International Institute for Middle-East and Balkan
Studies (IFIMES), Ljubljana, Slovenia
Gesellschaft Bosnischer Akademiker in Österreich (GBAA),
on Scientific and Socio-cultural Research and
excellent relations between the two countries,
Recalling the need for a horizontal
cooperation on all (non-governmental) levels, and Noting that
such cooperation between institutions as well as the
people-to-people exchanges are the best way to strengthen and
further excel cordial relations, but
Regretting that the wider theater of
Southeastern Europe, and its National minorities and Diaspora in
Central Europe are very little known to each other, and therefore
Wishing to reverse this negative trend, thus
Determined to promote and enhance scientific
and socio-cultural research and cooperation of the two and their
wider regional interest, including that of the national minorities
(already established and those in making), all that
Based on the exchange of letter of intent and
statement of purpose, and
Embedded in the mutually expressed accord of
Gesellschaft Bosnischer Akademiker in Österreich
(hereinafter referred to as "GBAA"), and the International
Institute for Middle-East and Balkan Studies (hereinafter
referred to as "IFIMES") are
Concluding the Memorandum of Understanding,
substantiating it as follows.
The signatories undisputedly agree that their
respective scientific and socio-cultural research and cooperation
shall be carried out through:
● Joint research projects in areas mutually agreed
upon as priorities;
● Exchange of experts, researchers, senior
practitioners, young talents (and the so-called ‘hidden champions’ –
● Exchange of views, standpoints and information
(social, economic, political, cultural, educational) of relevance
for the collaborative activities of the signatories (including the
best-practice exchange and transfer of research and event management
● Joint conferences, round-table, symposia,
workshops, and other (public or targeted-audience) events;
● Other forms of scientific cooperation, including
joint publications, research studies, on-demand expertise and
feasibility studies for the governmental and private sector within
and beyond the two countries;
● By a prior notification either party can revoke,
terminate or suspend, or invite for an alternation or amendment (in
full or in parts) this Memorandum at any time without any further
● The above stated cooperation will be pursued in
accordance with the positive legislation in force in the signatory
countries, Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria, all in
conformity with the standard EU rules and regulations.
Well-determined, the signatories will jointly
support, promote and enhance scientific and socio-cultural research
and cooperation between them as well as among the similar research
organizations within their respective countries and regions.
To this end, this Memoranda shall provide a framework
basis for any further arrangements between signatories, defining and
annotating future aspects of collaboration and eventual joint
Honorable but humble, authorized representatives of
the IFIMES and of the GBAA agree that a favorable atmosphere to
develop and excel cooperation in science and research has been
established for the lasting benefit of the two nations, their
respective institutions and wider regions, by today’s signature.
Ljubljana/Vienna, 16 February 2017
| for GBAA:
Dr. Zijad Bećirović
June 16, 2017
June 18, 2017
Paris and Pittsburgh, pesticides in
Indonesia: When none is best
| Wed, June 14 2017 | 01:22 am - Donald Trump famously said, “I was elected
to represent the people of Pittsburgh, not Paris,” when he announced the
withdrawal by the United States from the Paris Climate Agreement (PCA).
Pittsburgh is a city in the Rust Belt, which suffered from economic decline
due to deindustrialization. It was purportedly the Rust Belt that paved
Trump’s path to the presidency.
But what was the Pittsburgh mayor’s reaction? “We’re actually
with Paris on this.” In fact, the majority of Rust Belt states are also. It
just goes to show, climate change and global warming goes beyond politics
(although pssst! For your information, Pittsburgh did vote for
Well, that’s the way it should be. If there’s one thing that
people have in common, it is that we all live on this one fragile, precious
Another thing we have in common is that we all eat. In the
past 50 years, the number of people in the world has doubled, and so
obviously, so has food production. Modern agriculture has relied even more
on pesticides to get rid of pests and vermin which damage crops, but like
anything, too much of a “good thing” can be bad.
Pesticides are for crops like chemotherapy is for cancer: in
the same way that chemo kills the good cells in addition to the bad ones,
pesticides tend to kill organisms that weren’t intended to be killed.
Pesticides also affect the whole ecological system, leeching into the soil
and water, and poisoning birds, fish and other small animals.
And the effect of pesticides on humans? An entry in Toxipedia
says it has “neurological health effects
such as memory loss, loss of coordination, reduced speed of response to
stimuli, reduced visual ability, altered or uncontrollable mood and general
behavior, and reduced motor skills.” Thanks, but no thanks!
Recently I came
across a book called Krisis
Pangan dan ‘Sesat Pikir’: Mengapa Masih Berlanjut?
(Food Crisis and ‘Misguided Thinking”: Why does it still continue?”)
published last year, which addresses a very important issue: food production
Edited by Yunita T.
Winarto, professor of anthropology at the University of Indonesia (U.I.),
the anthology has eight chapters by six experts on topics ranging from
climate, insects, marginalized farmers and, yes, pesticides.
There were two
chapters on pesticides, one of them written by James J. Fox, professor
emeritus from the Australian National University (ANU) and Professor Yunita
Jim, as he is
usually called, is an old friend of mine from the 1980s. When I knew him
then he was working among others to get rid of pesticides. He was lucky. He
got help from none other than President Soeharto himself.
Harto issued a presidential decree (Inpres No. 3/1986) on Nov. 5, 1985
banning the use of 57 varieties of pesticides in response to a serious
outbreak of brown planthopper infestation. At the time Indonesia had just
achieved rice self-sufficiency – a source of great national pride.
According to Jim in
his chapter, the Inpres had the immediate effect of reducing the brown
critters and more. The reduction of pesticides for rice cultivation resulted
in annual rice increases for 17 years from 1987 to 2002. Impressive!
As the lowest user
of pesticides in any developing country, Indonesia was a shining example of
effective biological control of pests for other countries. In any typical
(paddy field) there are 100 natural predators of threatening pests,
especially of brown planthoppers who breed like rabbits.
good things come to an end. In 2002, there was a dramatic change in the
pesticide industry. Hundreds of local companies were established relying
heavily on supplies from China. Pesticides were promoted as
(medicine) for growing crops, distributed by local agents to village kiosks
Stunningly, in one
decade, from being one of the world’s lowest users of pesticides, Indonesia
became one of the highest. Brown grasshopper infestation became endemic on
Java. According to Jim and Yunita, “Twice in five years (2011 and 2014)
national rice production declined because of significant crop losses on
pesticides supposed to get rid of the brown planthoppers? Here’s the irony:
The overuse of pesticides actually induces the population increase of
planthoppers by killing their natural predators. Oh no! Then there’s also
resistance: With each generation of pesticide, the planthoppers become more
resistant to the pesticides.
There were also rice
varieties that were resistant to brown planthoppers, but by 2011, Indonesia
had none. Shifting infestations became endemic.
Jim and Yunita did a
UI-ANU pesticide survey in the village of Indramayu in West Java to obtain
comprehensive data on farmers’ utilization of a range of pesticides. The
study is replete with scientific names of various types of pesticides,
fungicides and herbicides, which the farmers can’t distinguish. Given the
lack of control in the form of government licensing systems, for example,
the farmers are like kids in a candy shop, choosing between striking labels
and the existence of “new products,” which could actually be old products
with new labels. Does this sound like a familiar marketing ploy?
Other problems that
the UI-ANU study identifies are spraying intensity and pesticide cocktails.
The farmers believe that the more, the better, and just to be on the “safe
side,” why not mix all the different products into a cocktail? Sounds yummy
right? In a disastrous way.
What’s the politics
behind it all? Political reformation in 1998, which led to regional
autonomy. Inpres No. 3/1986 still exists and could be invoked, but it isn’t.
The existence of a variety of incentive schemes from the pesticide companies
certainly helped, in the same way that the 22 senators who urged Trump to
withdraw from the PCA over the past five years collectively received US$10
million in campaign contributions from oil, gas and coal industries.
Rice is a “political
commodity” and governments’ ability to guarantee rice production and supply
earns them the people’s trust. In fact, raising the target of rice
production is a main program of the Jokowi administration in 2014-2019. But
the reality is that the sawah
ecosystem on Java has now
become very vulnerable. This trend cannot be reversed until the “misguided
thinking” of the farmers and various interested parties is also reversed.
Given the recognized
global dangers of pesticides, two United Nations experts have called for a
comprehensive global treaty to regulate and phase out toxic pesticides. The
movement for organic sustainable farming is in fact growing.
Could this be an
opportunity for Indonesia to reclaim the Queen Bee status it once had for 17
years to lead this movement?
Suryakusuma is the outspoken Indonesian thinker, social-cause fighter and
trendsetter. She is the author of Julia’s Jihad.
by Jakarta Post)
SENSE – A RELIC OF THE PAST?
By: Tomislav Jakic
Once upon a time, this is how fairy tales usually
begin. This is not a fairy tale, but once upon a time people used to talk
about common sense and to think based on common sense. It was never an ideal
time, but always when it seemed that the lack of common sense and the evil
in us would draw the world in the abyss of self-destruction, common sense
woke up and rebelled; most usually in combination with pragmatism. Mankind
paid dearly in the ensuing battle, it went through unbelievable horrors, but
eventually common sense would prevail. And so it went until the year 1990,
when the cold war ended. It was an extremely dangerous confrontation between
two, not only ideologically different blocks. The world peace was saved only
due to the fragile, but at the same time efficient balance of fear, namely
on the knowledge that an open armed confrontation would end without anybody
being victorious. But, as from the beginning of the last decade of the 20th
century, when East – West confrontation ended, due to the fact that the
Soviet block disintegrated, when the “dawn of democracy” begun shining on
countries, previously ruled with iron hand from one centre and by one and
only party and its repressive system, we are witnessing a constant and
steady downgrading in all sectors of life. Because of this and despite
democracy as a system, despite democratic forms and despite the multiparty
system, it is unavoidable that we put to ourselves the question: does common
sense belongs to the past, is t a relic of the past?
All indications point towards a positive
In international relations we are experiencing the
revival of the cold war, a new and with every day passing more dangerous
confrontation between the United States and the Russian Federation. In fact
it is nothing more than the almost desperate striving of neoliberal
capitalism to “rule the world”. In order to be able to achieve this goal, to
gain the support (of previously manipulated citizens, but – alas – in the
best democratic form) for the policy of expansionism, regardless of
anything, neoliberal capitalism needs an enemy. Because having an enemy is
the best way to homogenize one’s own flock. And the enemy was found, better
to say it was projected in the picture of Russia, although – and this is
ironic indeed – it is the democratic West that is today practicing the
policy of hegemony, once a trade mark of the Soviet Union. All basic
principles upon which the architecture of international relations was build,
are abandoned. Nobody even thinks of speaking about the principle of
equality, or the principle of not meddling in internal affairs of other
states, not to mention the right of every country and nation to develop as
they think it suits them best. In a globalised world, and we were made to
believe that only such a world could exist, everything must be “cooked
following the same recipe”. If this is not the case, with or without the
blessing of the UN and under the disguise of the war for democracy and for
human rights, bombers start their deadly missions, mercilessly killing those
whose human rights they are supposed to protect. Whole states are pushed
into chaos and internal fighting, whole regions are destabilized and heads
of states are killed (just remember Hillary Clinton and her words, when she
received the news that colonel Ghadafi was killed: “We came, we saw and he
is dead!”). At the same time for billions of dollars modern arms are being
sold to states whose record in the field of democracy and human rights is –
to put it mildly – very poor. But they are “ours”. With growing speed the
world is being divided between the ever smaller part of privileged and rich,
those who are governing not because they were democratically elected to do
so, but because they have the power to do so and the ever bigger part of
oppressed – in every sense – and poor, those who are being governed. While
thousands and thousands of people are dying from hunger in the undeveloped
countries, Europeans waste in one year so much food that every hungry human
being on this planet Earth could be fed. And the American President says
that climate changes and their evident results are just a hoax. Is there any
common sense in all this? No, there is none!
So, what can we expect, what is to be expected? Let
us put forward just two scenarios. The first is the armed confrontation
between East and West, be it direct, be it as a consequence of some action
of the unpredictable US President – amateur (for example a missile attack on
North Korea). In both cases the consequences would be disastrous, not to say
suicidal. The second scenario is slightly “milder”. It is based on the
presumption that the oppressed, the hungry and the poor would conclude that
they have nothing to lose, but their lives, and a tornado of revolution
would hit the whole world with a highly uncertain result. Indications that
are pointing towards this scenario we can detect in attacks whose
perpetrators are more and more often terrorizing the countries of the West.
While it is true that these attacks are – at least – disguised as being
religiously motivated, it is not less true that there is no religion that
could motivate suicide attackers, were it not for the basic and deeply
rooted feeling of being pushed to the margines of the society, of being
deprived of some basic rights, such as the right to be educated, the right
to be medically cared for, in short the right to live, as a human being, a
There too we confront the results of a policy
without any common sense, a policy that recruited the oppressed, the poor,
but pathological killers too, trying to use them as an instrument for
achieving its goals, only to meet now the murderers it produced as its own
enemies. There can be no doubt about it – they, the terrorists, were
produced by the policy of the West, they were armed and supported thanks to
this policy – either directly, or through smaller countries, satellites of
the “big Brother” form the other side of the Atlantic. And now this same
policy is being confronted by them – globally. Still it will not, or cannot
accept the fact that the terrorists are the greatest danger for the world as
we knew it and that the fight against them should be the prime – and common
– target of our civilization. It will not, or cannot accept Russia as an
ally in this war; on the contrary it is continuing to present Russia as an
enemy (adversary), adding – if it seems to be suitable – Iran, North Korea
and sometimes China. Is there any common sense in all this? None whatsoever!
And is there some common sense in the policy of the
so called transition countries? Absolutely not! Former Soviet satellites
only changed their master, they became champions in the battle against the
(non existing) communism, because it suits the neoliberal capitalism for
which the very idea of communism is the worst imaginable enemy. At the same
time these countries are deeply engulfed in historic revisionism, “writing”
the new history of WW 2 and the Antifascists struggle, while “forgetting”
their collaboration with Nazi-fascism. Republic of Croatia, to name one
example, invented the formula about “all totalitarian regimes being equal
evil”, thus putting on the same level antifascism (labeled for this purpose
as communism) and fascism, while Republic of Serbia – just another example –
rehabilitates in court procedures the leaders of the Chetnik movement which
collaborated with the occupying forces during WW2 and fought against Marshal
The prevailing atmosphere in the world is one of
fear for the future, of growing intolerance, of hate not only towards those
who are in any way different, but towards those who dare to think
differently and to voice their opinion. In the creation of such an
atmosphere the once respected journalistic profession played a shameful
role. Not only the mainstream media, but social networks too are transformed
into a snake’s pit of intrigues, lies and disinformation servicing the
policy that forgot what common sense is.
The rest is silence.
June 8, 2017
The post-Christian West and post-Western
Europe – II Part)
Anis H. Bajrektarevic
June 6, 2017
While the Western world is increasingly post-Christian and cosmopolitan, its
Eastern sibling is trapped in a post-ideological bubble: strikingly
entrenched and enveloped in its neo-religionism. No wonder: Eastern European
communities on all their levels are using failed models of leadership. Too
many institutions are still mired in a narrative of past victimization, and
too many have no any mechanism for producing new leaders to serve true
Currently, percentage of Eastern Europeans obtaining the foreign diplomas –
most notably those from the universities in Atlantic-Central Europe – that
are afterwards admitted to the higher echelons of their national
socio-economic, cultural and politico-military policy-making is higher than
even in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g. in the LDC, situated around Chad or
Victoria lakes or Horn of Africa). Their quantities and configurations
reveal us that the ‘elites’ in Eastern and Russophone Europe are among the
most unauthentic, least indigenous or less patriotically connected with its
electorate – probably a cleavage larger than anywhere else in the world.
That explains in detail why over the last two decades, the policies and
their protagonists in that region are so little responsive to a public
Any research, which is not a pre-paid or guided by remote
control, is usually quickly denounced. E.g. debate about alarming de-industrialisation
and brain-drain is simply a no-go. Any independent
thinking must be condemned as a ‘radical nationalism’. As if the
emancipative democracy should be a lame talk-shop, not a pursuit of
Finally, East is sharply aged and depopulated –the worst of
its kind ever– which in return will make any future prospect of a full and
decisive generational interval simply impossible.
Is the Honduras-ization of Eastern Europe, in additional to
refeudalization, now taking place? This term refers to an operationalization
of XIX century Monroe Doctrine in Latin America, by which Washington ever
since allowed its strategic neighborhood to choose their own domestic
political and economic systems to an acceptable degree, while the US
maintained its final (hemispheric) say over their external orientation. The
so-called Brezhnev doctrine (of irreversibility of communist gains)
postulated the Soviet (Suslov-Stalin) equivalent to Honduras-ization – Finlandization. Hence, it is safe to say that the
of Eastern Europe nowadays is full and complete.
Thus, if the post-WWII Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe was overt and
brutal, this one is subtle but subversive and deeply corrosive?
The key (nonintentional) consequence of the post WWII Soviet occupation was
that the Eastern European states –as a sort of their tacit, firm but
low-tempered rebellion – preserved their sense of nationhood. However, they
had essential means at disposal to do so: the right to work was highly
illuminated in and protected by the national constitutions, so were other
socio-economic rights such as the right to culture, language, arts and
similar segments of collective nation’s memory. Today’s East, deprived and
deceived, silently witnesses the progressive metastasis of its national
Eastern Europe, the (under-)world of dramatic aging which, is additionally
demographically knocked down by the massive generational and brain drain.
Passed the dismantling of the communist order, these emerging economies,
countries in transition of the new Europe contain reactionary
forces (often glorifying the wrong side of history), predatory ‘elites’ and
masses of disillusioned (in a life without respect and dignity, humiliated
and ridiculed in the triviality of their lasting decline).
Even if the new jobs are created or old kept, they are in fact smoke
screens: Mostly a (foreign-loans financed) state-sponsored poverty programs
where armies of the underemployed and misemployed cry out miserable wages in
dead-end jobs. Clero-nationalism and ethno-chauvinism is therapeutically
offered as a replacement for a reasonable life-prospect.
Former Slovakian cabinet minister laments in private: “Our ‘liberated East’
lives on foreign loans, or in the best case as the industrial suburbia of
Western Europe, having these few ‘generously’ franchised factories like Renault,
VW or Hugo Boss. Actually, those are just automotive
assembly lines and tailor shops – something formally done only in the III
World countries. Apart from the Russian Energia-Soyuz (space-program
related) delivery system, what else do we have domestically created anywhere
from Bratislava to Pacific? Is there any indigenous high-end technical
product of past decades known? ... Our EU accession deals are worse than all
Capitulation agreements combined that the Ottomans and Imperial China
have ever signed in their history.”
His former Polish counterpart is even more forthcoming:
“Unexperienced and naďve as it was in 1990s, Eastern Europe – in shock of
sudden geopolitical change – foolishly embraced shock therapy in lieu of a badly needed economic program… We failed to
understand that this destabilizing doctrine was simply a continuation of the
Milton Friedman’s experiment, which brought about one of the most notorious
dictatorships, of Pinochet in Chile, and then discharged its plague
elsewhere in Latin America, Middle East and Yeltsin’s obedient Russia. We
missed to make a comparative analysis and spot that this doctrine always
follows the same pattern in three stages: (i) the first impact of primary
destruction; (ii) ‘economic’ shock measures; (iii) their brutal enforcement,
along with an absence of any democratic debate… Implications are practically
irreversible reengineering that stretches far beyond our macroeconomic
fabrics. Consequences are socio-political, cultural, moral and demographic,
Ergo, euphemisms such as countries in transition or
new Europe cannot hide a disconsolate fact that Eastern Europe has been
treated for 25 years as defeated belligerent, as spoils of war which the
West won in its war against communist Russia.
It concludes that (self-)fragmented, deindustrialized and
re-feudalized, rapidly aged rarified and depopulated, (and de-Slavicized)
Eastern Europe is probably the least influential
region of the world – one of the very few underachievers. Obediently
submissive and therefore, rigid in dynamic environment of the promising 21st
century, Eastern Europeans are among last remaining passive
downloaders and slow-receivers on the otherwise blossoming stage of the
world’s creativity, politics and economy.
Persistent pauperization of the East is nothing else but a lasting
victimization of core sectors of the continent. That, in return, inevitable
leads to an accelerated (wealth, demographic and generational)
redistribution and hence a re-feudalization of the whole of Europe. Once the
black hole is formed, no star in proximity will ever prevail.
About the author:
Anis H. Bajrektarevic
Vienna, 01 MAY 2017
Author is chairperson and
professor in international law and global political studies, Vienna,
Austria. He authored three books: FB – Geopolitics of Technology
(published by the New York’s Addleton Academic Publishers); Geopolitics –
Europe 100 years later (DB, Europe), and
the just released Geopolitics – Energy – Technology by the
German publisher LAP. No Asian century is his forthcoming
book, scheduled for later this year.
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prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarevic
Editor - Geopolitics, History, International Relations (GHIR) Addleton Academic
Publishers - New YorK
Senior Advisory board member, geopolitics of energy Canadian energy research
institute - ceri, Ottawa/Calgary
Advisory Board Chairman Modern Diplomacy & the md Tomorrow's people platform
Head of mission and department head - strategic studies on Asia
Professor and Chairperson Intl. law & global pol. studies
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FOR VIETNAM - Dr. Nguyen Anh Tuan, Assos. Prof. Nguyen Linh
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(Researcher and Lecturer at the Faculty of Social and Politics,
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Earned an MA in International Relations from the University of East
Anglia in Norwich, United Kingdom in 2013. Her research interests include
foreign policy decision-making, realism and constructivism, and social
psychology and constructivism.
is an independent researcher specialized in International Politics and Peace
& Conflict Studies with a regional focus on the Balkans and the Middle East.
Founder of Internacionalista
Săo Paulo, Brazil
Brazil – New Age
political character of Social Media: How do Greek Internet users perceive and
use social networks?
SWISS UMEF UNIVERSITY
is a master`s degree student on the University for Criminal justice and Security
in Ljubljana. She obtained her bachelor`s degree in Political Science- Defense
George Mason University School of Policy, Government, and
Intl. Relations She focuses on Russia and Central Asia. Ms. Brletich is an
employee of the US Department of Defense.
Interview on HRT-Radio
Prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarević
Dr Filippo ROMEO,
is the outspoken Indonesian thinker,
social-cause fighter and trendsetter. She is the author of Julia’s Jihad.
Mads is an intern at PCRC. Mads Jacobsen is from Denmark and is currently
pursuing his Master's degree in 'Development and International Relations' at
University of Bihac, Faculty of Education,
Department of English Language and Literature - undergraduate
University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Philology, Department of English Language
and Literature - graduate study
Rakesh Krishnan Simha
New Zealand-based journalist and foreign affairs analyst. According to him, he
writes on stuff the media distorts, misses or ignores.
Rakesh started his career in 1995 with New Delhi-based Business World magazine,
and later worked in a string of positions at other leading media houses such as
India Today, Hindustan Times, Business Standard and the Financial Express, where
he was the news editor.
He is the Senior Advisory Board member of one of the fastest growing Europe’s
foreign policy platforms: Modern Diplomacy.
Daniele Scalea, geopolitical
analyst, is Director-general of IsAG (Rome Institute of Geopolitics) and Ph.D.
Candidate in Political studies at the Sapienza University, Rome. Author of three
books, is frequent contributor and columnist to various Tv-channels and
Research Associate at Institute of High
Studies in Geopolitics and Auxiliary Sciences (IsAG), Rome, Italy, and Ph.D.
researcher at University of Padova, is IMN Country Representative in Italy.
Foreign Policy Advisor to former Croatian
President Stjepan Mesić
Graduate of the London School of Economics,
prof. Zlatko Hadžidedić is a prominent thinker,
prolific author of numerous books, and indispensable political figure of the
former Yugoslav socio-political space in 1990s, 2000s and 2010s.
Mr. Nicola Bilotta
Nicola Bilotta has a BA and a MA
in History from Universitŕ degli Studi di Milano and a MSc in Economic History
from the London School of Economics. He works as a Global Finance Research
Assistant at The Banker (Financial Times) and collaborates as an external
researcher at ISAG (Istituto di Alti Studi di Geopolitica e Scienze Ausiliari)
Date and Place of Birth: April 22, 1943 – Amurang,
North Sulawesi, IndonesiaEducation: Bachelor in Public
Writer was a member of the House of Representatives
of Indonesia (DPR/MPR-RI) period of 1987-1999, and Chairman of
Committee X, cover Science and Technology, Environment and National
Development Planning (1988-1997).
Currently as Obsever of Nuclear for peace.
Attached to the US-based Berkeley University,
Sooyoung Hu is a scholar at its Political Science and Peace and Conflict
Studies Department. Miss Hu focuses on international relations, international
organizations and its instruments.
is a Ottawa-based free-lance writer from Zanzibar, Tanzania.
Recently retired Senior lecturer on Development studies, he extensively
publishes in over 50 countries on 4 continents. He can be reached at
Robert Leonard Rope
He studied at the University of
He lives in: San Francisco, California: San Francisco, California, USA