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Perpetual Self conflict: Self
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Diplomatie préventive - Aucun sičcle Asiatique sans l’institution pan-Asiatique - prof. Anis Bajrektarevic
The Continuum of Psychotic Organisational Typologies
There is no such person as an entrepreneur, just a person who acts
Groupthink may still be a hazard to your organization - Murray Hunter
Continuum of Psychotic Organisational Typologies
Mohd. Murray Hunter
University Malaysia Perlis
This paper discusses the influence on our perceptions from the basic
psychotic disposition of organizations. Cognitive distortion is
influenced by the psychotic traits of an organization along a
continuum of various states which include paranoia,
obsessive-compulsive, dramatic, depressive, schizoid, and
narcissistic tendencies. These tendencies may be of assistance in
the early start-up phases of a firm but overtime distort perceptions
and behavior of the organization through the defensive mechanisms
that develop. The psychotic continuum is a worthy paradigm through
which to view organizational opportunity, strategy, operations, and
decision making, potentially capable of assisting in diagnosing the
causes of organization dysfunction.
Peoples’ perceptions and views of the world are influenced by both
conscious and unconscious phenomena. The world is a totally socially
constructed reality where the people make sense of it from their
culture, experience and learning. Within the bounds of culture and
experience, each person has some unique interpretation of the
environment and understanding of its dynamics. Thus everything can
be viewed with multiple perspectives or realities.
A person’s psychological state will directly influence perception of
people, objects and events. This can potentially lead to perceptive
distortion, especially if the person has any psychotic tendencies
Therefore any construed reality, decisions made, strategies crafted,
resulting actions and consequential behavior would be based upon
biased perceptions. Thus everything that develops within a firm
including culture, management style, interpersonal relationships,
rules and procedures, strategy, symbols and behavior will have some
unconscious basis to it (Kets de Vries & Miller 1984).
As different psychotic states channel perception and thinking into
specific frames, this becomes relevant to how people see opportunity
and take action to exploit it. Thus perception and thinking
processes that identify opportunities and shape subsequent actions
have their origins both in the psych and the external world.
Identifying an opportunity and exploiting it may have as more to do
with inner needs i.e.,
recognition, love and affection, power and control, self esteem, or
grandeur, etc., as with any rational thought processes.
Cognitive distortion and delusion are more likely to occur at the
extremities of the psychotic continuum. However, most people whose
personalities can be considered within the bounds of normality will
exhibit some psychotic traits. This can include compulsion, anxiety,
depression, attention seeking, fantasies, irrational fears,
paranoia, shyness or narcissistic behavior, etc. For example,
psychographic research shows there are large variations in the
levels of depression across regions (Cohen, Slomkowski & Robins
It is usually very difficult to see abnormality as many psychotic
traits are also important drivers of manager and entrepreneur
behavior. Many well known business leaders could be considered
narcissistic in nature (Maccoby 2000). Some forms of psychosis
(attention-seeking, paranoia, obsessive-compulsiveness & narcissism)
are actually qualities that help bring people to the top of their
fields. However these same qualities in excess can lead to an
arrogant and overconfident delusion, once at the top. Many managers
have fallen from corporate grace for this reason (Kramer 2003).
Psychosis can prevent firms seeing the environment in new ways and
hinder the process of creativity and innovation. US industry faced
this situation in the 1970s and 80s when rising energy costs changed
the competitive environment and new competition came from Japan and
East Asia. The leaders of US industry failed to see the need to
adapt to the changing market environment. Many companies hung onto
their old perceptions and failed to see the realities of their new
environment and the need to change. This cost many companies very
dearly for this delusion (Schoenberger 1994).
Firms and organizations can also show
‘collective’ patterned behaviors just like individuals and
groups. Individual and group psychosis has been well researched and
written about. However
‘collective’ firm and organization psychosis has been the
subject of only a small handful of articles and books, and generally
ignored in management theory. The psychotic paradigm is useful in
looking at the issues of how a person sees and constructs meaning,
how a person’s needs influence the decisions they make, and how
psychological pathologies affect behavior.
There are a number of basic psychotic pathologies which can affect
both perception and behavior. These pathologies include the
paranoid, obsessive-compulsive, attention-seeking, depressive,
schizoid and narcissistic typologies shown in figure 1. These are
not absolute disorders and may vary in intensity from organization
to organization. Some psychotic conditions may act in together with
other forms of psychosis creating part of a complex personality.
Looking for evidence of these typologies can assist in seeing the
way others see the world and form their underlying assumptions.
The Paranoid Typology
Paranoia is based on an intense fear, suspicion of others (both
internal and external to the organization) that is exaggerated or
irrational. Paranoia usually brings with it deluded perceptions that
being singled out by enemies’, who are harming or intend to harm
him/her. Paranoia is ego-centric because it is about
‘me’ and usually sees another as
‘out to get him/her’ (persecutory complex). People with paranoid
tendencies tend to see the world as a threatening place and are
usually very guarded until they know their fears are groundless.
This leads to little loyalty towards others.
Relationships and interpersonal behavior is generally governed with
the belief that
‘people somehow have it in for him/her’. Paranoid people tend to
avoid relationships. However relationships they do form tend to be
cold, lack intimacy and involve jealousy and suspicion,
i.e., the other person is doing something harmful behind his/her
back. They are usually very sensitive to criticism and will
brood for long periods of time if criticized. Criticism can also
invoke anger, argumentation, and uncompromising stands which often
lead to great antagonism, if challenged. Even though they are very
sensitive to criticism themselves, they are very critical of others.
Anything that goes wrong is someone else’s fault and not theirs.
Paranoia is usually focused on the present where someone is trying
to undermine him/her and the future, where someone is plotting a
plan to harm him/her. Suspicions based on past experience cannot be
classed as paranoia when experience as a basis of concern. However,
if this concern is blown out of proportion to any potential harm
that can be done, paranoia is present.
Paranoid people have the urge to collect as much information about
the market as possible. They will scan for information of threats
and spend a large amount of time thinking how to formulate reactions
to them. They are in fact looking for evidence that reinforces their
suspicions but at the same time pride themselves on their
rationality and objectiveness. They centralize organization decision
making because of lack of trust in other peoples judgments and their
beliefs that people are looking for ways to sabotage him/her.
Consequently budgeting and controls will be very strict. The
organization culture will be one of suspicion where looking for
problems and wrong doers (scapegoats) is the norm.
The resulting crafted strategies are primarily designed to protect
the company’s position and defend it from any potential competitor
attacks rather than be proactive moves in the marketplace and take
risk. Therefore the firm will miss many opportunities to be creative
and innovative in the market. Paranoid companies tend to lag behind
the competition and muddle through with disconcerted and
inconsistent strategies. They will follow the market leader rather
than risk being innovative with their own ideas. However they will
very easily revert to legal litigation if they believe harm has been
done to them. Paranoid people will tend to avoid certain products
and markets if they believe there is a more powerful competitor in
Paranoia usually occurs when there is some form of traumatic and
stressful issues or some challenge arising. In many cases paranoia
will be a temporary condition until the immediate sources of stress
pass. Paranoia can also be a selective phenomena where an object,
event or situation. For example, the belief that
‘multinational companies always target local companies for takeover’
will influence perception and behavior.
Paranoia can also merge with the schizoid typology where a strong
persecutory complex develops. Paranoia sufferers can also develop
grandiose delusions where he/she believes they have particular
skills or abilities to carry out a special mission, but someone has
a master plan to prevent him/her from successfully fulfilling their
calling. Such a fantasy was shown in the movie The Blues Brothers
where Jake and Elwood believed they were on
mission from God’ and being prevented from carrying out their
calling by a number of groups (the police, the sheriff, the other
group and eventually the whole United States armed forces).
A mild form of the paranoia typology could be positive where the
organization will have good knowledge of its external threats and
opportunities and internal strengths and weaknesses. This would be
well suited to extremely dynamic environments where there is rapid
change going on.
The Obsessive-Compulsive Typology
The obsessive-compulsive typology has many similarities to the
previous paranoid typology where there is great emphasis on control
of the organization and surveillance of the environment. A leader
with this type of behavior will tend to be stubborn and frustrated
with his/her subordinates because of his/her inner need to pursue
perfection. This behavior is often a characteristic of many high
achievers in society.
Compulsive people are usually perfectionists and take great care and
diligence in their own work to the point of being very slow to
complete tasks. As a manager of others he/she will have great
difficulty in delegating work. To maintain control, they will
develop many rules, procedures and policies to keep a check on their
subordinates work. The firm’s preoccupation with planning, budgets,
procedures, rules and action plans will greatly influence how the
company is internally organized and how the environment is seen and
interpreted. Strategy will also be crafted taking into account the
firm’s existing rules and procedure structure, limiting its own
Productivity will be sacrificed for perfection of work.
Obsessive-compulsive people also expect perfection from others and
become very frustrated when people don’t live up to their standards
and expectations. In extreme situations this leads to get mistrust
of coworkers and subordinates, leading to the loss of respect and
falling out of relationships. This is generally part of a wider
inability to develop and carry on relationships with people because
of their feeling that socializing is wasting time.
Strategy is usually developed and implemented with a very clear
concrete objective and underlying and uncompromising philosophy
which serves as the organization’s reason for being. This philosophy
based on the founder’s sense of ethics will remain steadfast within
the company’s mission and strategy, even at the cost of exploiting
some potential opportunities arising during the life of the company.
Strategy will tend to be based more on this philosophy than what is
happening in the competitive environment.
Success is often jeopardized with to the reluctance to commit the
necessary resources in the implementation phase. The
obsessive-compulsive organization will tend to hoard and hang on to
resources, being reluctant to use them.
The entrepreneur who started the firm will in most cases also manage
the firm during the growth and maturity stages. A person may find it
very difficult to release control and delegate power and authority.
Where compulsiveness and centralized decision making worked well in
the early stages, this style of management in later stages of
development becomes an obstacle to firm creativity and innovation.
This form of positional status can increase the power-distance
relationships in the organization.
Formal controls and organizational hierarchy creates a very static
and stable internal environment. Formal authority is through
position in the hierarchy rather than experience. This status and
dominance over subordinates is clearly shown in these types of
Obsessive-compulsive behavior in organizations may tend to be a
defense mechanism against some form of anxiety or fear, in a similar
way to the paranoia typology. Obsessive-compulsive people hold the
belief that some form of calamity will happen if action is not taken
to prevent it. To them this means that work must be completed to the
upmost highest standards possible. This scenario is often reinforced
by organizational stories about a previous major problem that
occurred because the firm was not adequately prepared. In times of
great uncertainty this typology can lead to organizational
The obsessive-compulsive typology is useful during entrepreneurial
start ups, in very stable environments and repetitive manufacturing
operations, etc. However the resulting organizational form created
out of this typology will become very rigid because of the core
philosophy and the high number of controls in place. If controls
become too excessive, organizational motivation, creativity and
innovation will decline. This will hinder the organization from
identifying and exploiting new opportunities. However in a moderate
form the organization will have a well integrated check and balance
system and focused product strategy. When new products/opportunities
are discovered, the underlying need of producing perfection will
make the development process very slow.
The Attention-Seeking (Dramatic) Typology
The attention-seeking (dramatic) typology is manifested when a
person is hyperactive, impulsive and dramatically venturesome in
their lives. They work tirelessly to impress others, often appearing
flamboyant, craving novelty and excitement. Attention seeking people
base their actions on hunches and intuition, without any formal
analysis before making decisions. An organization within the
attention-seeking (dramatic) typology will have very centralized
decision and command structures. The attention-seeking leader sees
the primary role the organization is to carry out his/her bold and
dramatic ideas thought out by the leader.
Attention-seeking (dramatic) leaders are usually great charmers of
people they want to impress. They continually seek positive feedback
and admiration of their actions. They are very opinionated on
topical issues, but lack substance to support their ideas and will
change their position to suit their audience. They have very low
self-esteem and rely on others to suppress this. Being at the centre
of attention relieves this tension and the insecurity they feel.
Consequently it is hard to get along with these people unless one
helps to fulfill this craving for attention. These leaders tend to
surround themselves with people who will always agree with them.
Decision making is unreflective and borders on the impulsive. The
larger and more complex the organization grows, the more opportunity
for dramatic events and less time there is for the leader to focus
on detail in the decisions he/she makes on behalf of the
organization. Decisions tend to be made on the potential to gain
attention rather than any factual analysis. Narcissistic behavior
also can occur, where bullying, manipulation and deception become
tools of control and domination. Subordinates usually see through
the insincerity and become de-motivated, uninspired, skeptical, and
stop giving creative suggestions to the leader. This uncreative
environment is reinforced by the way managerial posts are filled
through politics and nepotism. Those who have real influence are
those who are favoured by the leader. The leader sees employees only
as tools to implement his/her grand plans. The views of subordinates
are rarely taken into account for major decisions.
Strategy is based on the general craving for visibility and
exposure. Consequently strategy often diverges from previously set
goals and objectives because other circumstances have created
opportunities where attention can be quickly gained. As a
consequence, strategy becomes very disjointed and
hoc. Organizational structure is hap-hazard and does not take
account for the needs of the environment. The structure is developed
with the need of the leader to control decision making. It is not
uncommon for the leader to meddle in even the most mundane decisions
and give out assignments that are very difficult to satisfy. Short
term advantages are sort at the cost of long term gains for the
organization. Resources are used very inefficiently.
Attention-seeking (dramatic) organizations may borrow heavily and
become highly geared companies.
Attention-seeking (dramatic) people my start projects with great
enthusiasm, as it seemed a good idea at the time, but very quickly
loses interest. The general motivation behind what they do is to
gain notoriety and attention rather than create something of long
term substance. This trait may be very valuable in start ups in high
profile industries like entertainment where there are no shortages
of examples. However this form of strategy can be disastrous in a
mature organization, where new strategy will be inconsistent, with
an unnecessary high risk with rash expansion.
The Depressive Typology
The depressive typology is characterized by a feeling of
hopelessness, inaction, passiveness, low confidence and
conservatism. There is a feeling that there is little control of the
outside environment and even if they intervened there is little
chance of success, so the best option is to carry on as usual and
not be proactive.
In a depressive state cognitive information coming in will become
distorted resulting in a stream of negative thoughts. Beck (1967)
suggests that people who themselves are depressed will develop a
cognitive schema that organizes incoming information in a negative
way. Things about self, the world and the future will be subject to
overgeneralization distortions which will create negative
outlooks into matters of competency, ability, luck, fate and
potential outcomes, etc. Other cognitive distortions (Beck 1976)
arbitrary inferences (jumping to negative conclusions about
personalizing (assuming everything is one’s own fault), and
castastrophizing (thinking the worst case scenario about
everything) will also distort incoming information, leading to the
feeling of being a total failure, where a self fulfilling prophecy
Within the organizational context, there will not be much interest
in anything, leading to a number of stifling consequences such as
failure to replace assets, little, if any new product development,
little market intelligence gathering, poor customer service and
leader indecisiveness. There is a basic pessimistic outlook towards
the outside environment. The organization will tend to be very
bureaucratic and hierarchical, the same it has been for decades
before (if it is an established company). Managers will not take any
initiative and leave major decisions for the board and committees to
make. The company operates through procedures with little impact
from happenings in the marketplace. This brings complacency which
brings strong barriers to any form of change.
Strategy tends to develop from within, rather than from the market
as managers feel they already understand the market well enough and
there is little point doing any further field analysis. The
competition is seen as being the same and customers are homogenous
as far as managers are concerned. Too much field analysis could
bring uncertainty, shock and anxiety about the need to change which
is what the organization is trying to avoid.
This typology is common in very established firms in stable market
environments where technology in production processes have been
already automated. Examples of these types of industries would
include the steel, automotive (prior to the 1980s), agriculture and
some industrial chemical industries. Industries that have been
protected through tariffs and formed oligopolies would be very
susceptible to depression. Because these industries have been stable
for many years, environmental change is very difficult to see from
inside the industry, something like
goldfish not being able to see the water it is swimming in. In
an organization with a moderate form of pessimism, one would expect
a high degree of management involvement in strategy formation,
resulting in firm focus. However where complacency has developed,
anarchistic strategies and stagnation in a declining market would be
When firms become pessimistic bringing on complacency, this leaves
them open to takeover by stronger and more ambitious competitors.
For example, CEMEX the Mexican cement giant took the opportunity to
takeover cement companies in South-East Asia during the 1997-1999
Asian financial crisis, where many firms became very pessimistic.
Novel strategies in very stable markets can shake complacent
competition. Singapore Airlines left IATA and shook up competition
by providing better in-flight service in the 1970s. Existing TV
networks were caught off-guard when CNN launched its 24 hour news
network in 1980.
The Schizoid Typology
The schizoid typology is relatively rare in new enterprises as
someone in this state would be unlikely to develop an enterprise
unless it is of solitary nature, like graphic design or computer
programming. The world to the schizoid is unhappy, unpleasant and
empty of meaning. Nothing really excites the schizoid who tries to
remain detached from everything. Sometimes schizoid tendencies carry
an eccentric nature or beliefs with them such as belief in the
supernatural, UFOs or conspiracy theories, etc. In private life the
schizoid person is greatly devoid of personal relationships except
for parents and closest relatives. He/she would have very few
friends as they are seen as intrusive and a waste of time. For these
reasons the person lives a very sheltered life, where any social
support network will not likely exist.
Under the schizoid typology, any leadership in an organization would
appear directionless, always changing and confused, indifferent to
praise and criticism, and seemingly detached from the reality of
what is going on. The leader would appear to be in a world of
fantasy or daydreams. Deep down this state would be caused by
anxiety or fear of being attached to intimacy from either the
feeling self conscious, worthless and at the same time superior to
others (Stone 1993).
Firms in the schizoid state would carry out very little
environmental scanning. There is no firm philosophy to follow,
resulting in undisciplined and uncoordinated product/market
strategy. Little direction would come from the leader who will tend
to be withdrawn, indecisive or uncommitted. It is likely that the
leader will not even have any close advisors to fill in his/her
apathetic void. Such a company would tend to pay little, if any
attention to criticism and complaints by customers, stakeholders and
authorities. Due to this underlying apathy there is great risk that
strategies developed will operate with little regard to rules and
regulations. If these breaches are serious and the company is caught
out, it could lead to heavy consequences.
Company strategy and operations will just continually muddle along
unless one or more groups within the organization takeover and
dominate the decision making process, e.g., marketing, finance or
operations departments. There may be a struggle between two or more
groups within the company, where demarcation lines with will be
created with an
and them” mentality. If this occurs then the organization will
become a political battleground, resulting in little collaboration.
These barriers between departments would lead to very little flow of
information around the organization.
If conflict is managed within the organization this could promote
many different points of view. However this may be difficult if
political competitiveness destroys any potential cooperation. Most
strategy and operational decisions will be very inconsistent because
they are based on political processes. The organization will lack
the strength in the top leadership to steer it all subordinates in
the same direction and overcome the climate of suspicion and
The Narcissistic Typology
Narcissistic behavior can occur from extreme behaviors within the
paranoid, obsessive-compulsive and the attention-seeking (Dramatic)
typologies or it can occur as a psychological response to the need
to manage self-esteem. Narcissistic individuals have a strong need
to be admired, a sense of self importance and a lack of insight and
empathy into the needs and feelings of others. They see themselves
as great achievers, even if they haven’t achieved anything, which
can lead to an overconfidence bias. They seek to associate
themselves with those who have been successful to seek more acclaim
through the association. Narcissists find it very difficult to cope
with their own emotions, particularly when their self view comes
under scrutiny. For this reason they find it very difficult to learn
from others, are poor listeners and don’t teach, but indoctrinate
Narcissists are highly ambitious people. They are attracted to
business and driven by their need for power and glory. This is a
trait of many successful entrepreneurs, where self confidence and
ambition assisted them. The dream of success and the accolades it
brings is something they think about a lot. Some narcissists are
truly experts in their field and they will extend their knowledge
and skills into other areas. Where narcissists have little
intellectual knowledge in their field, they will think very shallow,
but at the same time they will be very
Narcissists expect a lot from their subordinates. When they don’t
receive the total devotion and dedication they expect of their
subordinates, they will punish them in Machiavellian ways. The
narcissist is highly distrustful and overly exploitive of his/her
subordinates. However he/she is extremely sensitive to criticism and
will very quickly grow into childlike deep anger and rages if they
are not given the respect they think they deserve.
Strategy will be underlined with a great desire to compete and win
at any costs. This drive to win can be positive but at the extreme,
devious methods will be employed which can border on the unethical
and illegal. In extreme narcissism, objectives can be unrealistic as
they are based on fantasy. This results in grandiose strategies
objectives which are impossible to achieve (Brown, 1997, P. 648).
The arrogant nature of the narcissist will lead to intuitive
decisions where little analysis and interpretation of the market is
undertaken (Brown & Starkey 2000). The narcissist likes to think in
terms of the big picture and leave details to his/her few trusted
loyalists who tend to tell their leader what he/she wants to hear.
The narcissist wants to leave a legacy and be ready for a fight.
However he/she will always look for potential enemies along the
horizon. There is a reluctance to change strategy even when it is
not working as the narcissist views this as a sign of weakness and
failure. This weakness can lead to large scale disasters.
Table 3.21. Six psychotic typologies, characteristics, associated
thoughts and beliefs.
Associated Thoughts & Beliefs
People influenced by this typology will;
Be distrustful of others,
Misinterpret social events as threatening,
Harbor resentment towards others,
Is prone to envy and jealousy, and
Is argumentative, hostile and stubborn.
“People are all out to get me”
“We must get others before they get us”
“All people have ulterior motives and cannot be trusted”
“People say one thing but do another”
“Don’t let people get away with anything”
“I have to be on my guard all the time”
“People are only friendly because they want something”
People influenced by this typology will;
Be preoccupied with order,
Seek perfection in what they do,
Have little time for friends and holidays,
Usually be miserly and stingy, and
Be rigid and stubborn.
“Rules and high standards keep order”
“Other people are reckless and irresponsible in their
“If don’t look into the details there may be possible
“My way is the right way to do things”
“It is not worth doing something unless it is done
“I must not waste any time on frivolous things that
interfere with my work”
“I can only depend on myself”
People influenced by this typology will;
Engage in excessive attention seeking activities,
Exhibit excessive emotions,Have shallow opinions, Have a
strong need for attention, and
Be very political, Machiavellian in their decision
“I am in
charge of everything”
“People are here to work for me”
“High profile actions promote my image”
“Politics, manipulation and deception are ways of
“I get by on my hunches without really having to think
“It feels good to be at the centre of things”
“The world is a stage – dramatic acts lead to greatness”
“Look at me, aren’t I great”
“I can impress and entertain anybody because I’m an
“Boredom is the worst feeling”
“If I can do it – just do it”
People influenced by this typology will;
Tend to give up or not even try,
Believe they are not capable of achievement,
See their position as hopeless, and
Tend to give up if problems arise.
“I am likely to fail”
“The world is against me”
“If anything will go wrong, it will”
“Why bother trying”
“Everything is my fault”
“We cannot beat the competition”
People influenced by this typology will;
Be detached from personal relationships,
Be indifferent to opinion,
Have very little pleasure in life,
Be socially inept,
Be very passive and uncommitted when events are
Prefer to work alone.
“I hate being around and tied up with other people”
“I like my privacy and not being close to others”
“Its best not to confide in others”
“Relationships are always difficult and end up badly”
“I am best working on my own”
“I don’t need an intimate relationship”
People influenced by this typology will;
Need to be admired,
Have a strong sense of self importance,
Have a lack of insight into other people’s needs and
Have a sense of entitlement,
Have a sense of superiority,
Have a strong but very fragile self-esteem, and
Be envious of others.
special and deserve VIP treatment”
“Rules don’t apply to me”
“I look after No. 1”
“If others don’t give me the praise and recognition I
deserve, they should be punished”
“Who are you to criticize me?”
The firm will become self-absorbed and seek to
capitalize on opportunities that show greatness. These are very
inward looking (Christensen & Cheney 2000), where stakeholder
interests are rarely considered, often leaving them to drop off
support. Self rhetoric can become so intense an echo of unrealistic
dreams and grand schemes, that in telling himself who he is and what
he stands for, that he will forget who he is and what he stands for
(Hatch & Schultz 2002).
The typologies above have some influence in how the world is
perceived. Structure, management style and strategy reflect or
mirror how the leader and members of the organization see the world.
This is heavily influenced by the leader at the top (Mitroff 1984),
especially if the leader was also the founder of the organization.
Although organizations can be seen as a psychotic phenomenon, very
little research has been undertaken on this aspect of misalignment
to date. The psychotic continuum is a worthy paradigm through which
to view organizational opportunity, strategy, operations, and
decision making, potentially capable of assisting in diagnosing the
causes of organization dysfunction.
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 The continuum from normal to any type of
psychotic behavior should be seen in steps and degrees, rather than
in any absolute terms.
 Personalities are very complex and most psychological
profiling methods measure them simply missing much of the depth of a
personality. Thus personalities really cannot be accurately
understood through a 5 or 7 point scale, etc, as a personality is
made up of thousands of traits or attributes which vary in influence
according to time of day, mood and situational occurrences. What
even makes personality more difficult to understand is that a
person’s ‘self-view’ may be very different to what they portray to
the world, i.e., an attention seeker shows grandiosity but may have
a very low self-esteem. Our general surface observation of a person
can only see what that person wants us to see and what they want to
be, rather than whom they are.
 The power-distance relationship was a concept developed by
Gerard Hendrik Hofstede to describe how people in the lower part of
the organization accept power from higher up the organisation
hierarchy. In the case of an obsessive-compulsive organization it
would be expected that the power-distance relationship to be high
where relationships would be very autocratic. See: Hofstede, G. H.,
(2001). Culture’s Consequences: Comparing values, behaviors,
institutions, and organizations across nations, 2nd Ed., Thousand
Oaks, CA., Sage Publications.
Perpetual Self conflict: Self awareness as a key to our ethical drive, personal mastery, and perception of entrepreneurial opportunities. Murray Hunter
The Continuum of Psychotic Organisational Typologies Murray Hunter
There is no such person as an entrepreneur, just a person who acts entrepreneurially Murray Hunter
Go Home, Occupy Movement!!-(The McFB– Was Ist Das?) - prof. Anis Bajrektarevic
Diplomatie préventive - Aucun siècle Asiatique sans l’institution pan-Asiatique - prof. Anis Bajrektarevic
OPEN PAGES FOR ALL PROBLEMS - BLACK ON WHITE ABOUT ALL OPPRESSION
OTVORENE STRANICE ZA SVE PROBLEME - CRNO PO BIJELOM O SVEMU ŠTO TIŠTI
Tekstovi koji vulgarno vrijeđaju: neku vjeru, navode na rasnu diskriminaciju i slično, ne dolaze u obzir.
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